This panel will bring leading motor experts to discuss the latest in motor technology, including Brushless PM, Switch Reluctance and Induction motors. The panelist will cover configurations, applications, and what's ahead. Scott Reynolds, Electric Torque Machines, Inc. Keith W. Klontz, PhD, PE, President & CEO, Advanced MotorTech James Hendershot, President, Motorsolver
The design and tested performance is presented for an extremely efficient industrial motor, suitable for comparison to NEMA’s induction motor efficiency standards, and equivalent European standards. The motor is an industrial PM motor, rated for 15hp/11kW, 1,800 rpm, and is an example of a new class of extremely efficient motors. A test procedure for direct comparison to induction motor efficiency is included, with and without the additional variable frequency drive losses. The results show that the PM motor efficiency is much higher than the best efficiency available for induction motors, and also significantly higher than the contemplated levels for future efficiency standards.
In the process industry, many safety functions include a pump, motor, or other electrical device. To bring a process to a safe state the devices that control these electric elements need to work correctly. Motor contactors, motor starts, and safety torque off functions are commonly used for these applications. A recent study of over 43,300 safety instrumented functions revealed that 26% of final elements are electric final elements. The wide usage of electric final elements confirms the importance of more extensive review of this category of devices. While the failure modes and mechanisms in machinery applications have been study for years, there is less data and experience to draw on. When dealing with a lack of sufficient field data a well thought out and documented methodology can help fill the void. This paper will discuss market research showing a need for low demand failure data for motor controllers, propose a methodology to fill in the missing information, review several reference systems to demonstrate how to design compliant safety functions.
Electric motors are being adopted for an increasing number of applications in the automotive market. This presentation will discuss the variety of end-equipment where electric motors and advanced drive electronics are being used throughout passenger vehicles. These include high-voltage traction motors, low-voltage motors throughout the body and cabin, and mid-voltage (48V) motors finding adoption in the powertrain and other areas. Emphasis will be on innovative trends such as electric motors replacing belt-driven subsystems, novel uses of electric motors for driver comfort and safety, and trends in the types and specifications of motors leading to overall improvements in efficiency, mileage, and emissions.
As economic historian Paul David once stated, much of the credit to the 1920s productivity boom in American manufacturing was that manufacturers had finally figured out how to use technology (namely electricity) that was nearly 50 years old. Some argue that we are still trying to grasp the productivity gains promised with the advent of the programmable controllers and personal computing in the late 1960s and early 1970s of the 3rd Industrial Revolution. With the fourth revolution revolution arguably already here, the future of motion control and robotics will continue to merge as the machine intelligence advances resulting in success for those manufactures on the leading edge of technology advancement. Join Darrell as he explores how technology and software have evolved the customer and engineer journey in machine control design by discussing: initial design validation steps that can be used to develop design scope; simulation and digital twin benefits in optimization and risk management; removing the linear constraint - simple and complex kinematic motion design benefit; implementation of new technology in the machine build, test, start-up and run off phase to reduce cost and time.
High performance motion systems are limited by basic system characteristics – the performance wall (an example will be discussed briefly). A number of less obvious methods for getting around these limitations are available. Even crudely adaptive systems can get information from environmental sensors, inherent system thermal time constants and statistical considerations that give substantial boosts in motion performance – or provide corresponding cost reductions. Even customer returns that carry operational data can prove highly useful. This paper discusses a number of such approaches and how they can be implemented. Customer explanations like “run it cooler and it’ll go faster” help the customer take advantage of these techniques and build brand loyalty.
We are excited to announce a new addition to the 2018 conference – 1x1 Meetings using our proprietary software. Download the conference app, and use this dedicated time to meet and engage with other attendees, speakers and exhibitors.
This presentation will introduce permanent magnet concepts and then build that into an explanation on calculating where the permanent magnet will operate in a magnetic circuit. Knowing where a permanent magnet operates allows us to determine what type of magnet would offer the best performance for a specific application. After designing the correct magnet for the application, now it will have to be manufactured. Specifying a magnet by its maximum energy product is useful for magnet suppliers, machine designers should specify magnets based on their performance in the application. This paper will conclude with a case study of a high speed machine and provide details on how to properly specify the magnet assembly.
There are two primary technologies of magnet retention in high speed permanent magnet machines, namely high-strength non-magnetic metal sleeve and a proprietary advanced graphite-composite sleeve. Each offers unique advantages to the system and motor/generator performance. The metal sleeve can be designed to provide some stiffness to the rotor structure. It also acts to effectively shield the magnets from stator's harmonic currents. Eddy currents generated in the metal sleeve due to stator's harmonic currents and stator slotting impede high frequency fields from penetrating the magnets and generate losses. Most of the absorbed energy in the metal sleeve readily dissipates to the cooling medium in the airgap and the rest is conducted to the magnets and/or end supports. Carbon fiber sleeves are significantly stronger and lower density than their metal counterparts thus allow the use of more magnet mass or thinner sleeve for similar magnet volume. The result is smaller magnetic gap and better magnetic performance with carbon fiber sleeve. However, they do not provide any harmonic filtering. Moreover, due to their low thermal conductivity they act as thermal barriers to heat generated in the magnets. Rotor loss reduction and management techniques such as segmenting magnets or conductive layer shielding can be employed to enhance system performance when using carbon fiber sleeves.
In contrast with typical design of Line Start Permanent Magnet (LSPM) motors new patented Dual Rotor construction DR-LSPM motor is able to handle loads with high inertia and able to develop high starting torque. New DR-LSPM design does eliminate load torque oscillation that often can be violent and often limits power range in LSPM applications. Presentation will discuss operating principle of the new motor design, FEA analysis examples and test results of a prototype motor delivering efficiency exceeding IE4 level, along with high starting torque and ability to drive high inertia loads.
The characterization of electric motors has recently become an important topic in many engineering labs throughout the world especially for electric and hybrid vehicles. To test and characterize electric motors, many labs have put together systems with multiple pieces of measurement equipment from different suppliers. While these systems work, they often have high levels of complexity and operate much slower than an optimized system. This presentation offers a revolutionary measurement solution specifically designed for electric motor testing which consolidates many systems into one, allowing for rapid efficiency mapping, reliable motor analysis and considerably boosts productivity, capability plus research and development.
Torque of an electric motor is of utmost important to manufacturers and users. The approach followed to determine torque depends on the type of motor and the type of torque (rated, locked-rotor, peak or breakdown). The different approaches applied for induction motors and permanent magnet motors are equally challenging and their effectiveness is dependent on instrumentation issues, scaling inaccuracies, temperature effects and non-linear phenomena. This presentation will discuss the torque requirements of induction and permanent magnet motors, focusing on the challenges of testing for these parameters. The presentation puts forward practical techniques and considerations for torque testing of induction and permanent magnet motors.
To meet competitive industrial demands, motor and control technologies are advancing at significantly fast rate. Recently, demand for high frequency AC motors and generators(mainly PM brushless and Induction motors) are increasing and it is a big challenge for power electronics and motor control. In this presentation, we will discuss on technical limitations on current drives on high frequency operation and several techniques to overcome these limitations, including motor control algorithms (FOC and DTC), various phase delays at high frequency operation, and switching characteristics of power semiconductor switches. Result from simulation as well as test result from actual drive system will be presented.
Accelerated by enhancements of electric mobility, testing of electric motors has become of increasing importance in the automotive industry. Due to inhomogeneous magnetic fields an inaccurate PM rotor makes an electric motor inefficient and reduces the engine power directly. Matesy has developed a new rotor measuring station based on 3-axis Hall-sensors for 3D field measurement, magneto-optical sensor module for fast and high-resolution field visualization and a distance sensor for simultaneous geometry measurement. With its smaller dimensions it is suited for various rotor sizes and flexible use in both laboratory and production environment for the intended 100 percent control of PM rotors.
This presentation will focus on electrical predictive maintenance test methods for motors utilizing both static and dynamic testing technology. It will begin by discussing motor materials, failure modes, reasons for material failure and specific tests/parameters used to detect motor problems prior to failure, avoiding costly down time. It will conclude with confirming case studies and benefits.
In order for a direct drive motor to be able to properly operate through the lifetime of a machine, it must have its temperature properly monitored to avoid any unwanted overheating and damages which would be unrepairable. There are multiple methods used to do so both on a controller level and a sensor level, and understanding how each come into play can help mitigate their weaknesses. This presentation will go over these methods to help a user better understand how they work and avoid motor overheating long term.
Multi objective, multi constraint optimization is being used often, if not daily, in the motor design world. The design of a motor involves however different disciplines. Some of these disciplines are electromagnetics for the performances and efficiency, system modeling for the control and drive, mechanical for stress, vibrations and noise and thermal and fluid dynamic for heat management. Any modification made to optimize the motor in one discipline will have impact on performances of the motor in the other disciplines. Instead of optimizing each element separately, a multi discipline optimization will ensure that all requirements of the design are respected and that a common optimum is reached. The MDO process is shown on a permanent magnet machine.
As manufacturers and OEMs seek ways to improve system and production efficiency, maximize production output, and reduce scrap, new designs in automation brought forth by advances in software and electronics call for wise use and better performance out of motor and motion control. In this presentation, we will look examine the various types of motors, from electric servomotors to high efficiency electric motors, and identify the advantages and disadvantages of each in applications ranging from robotics to packaging to CNC machining, when it comes to their integration with today’s leading-edge electronics and programming know-how.
This presentation looks at the system interactions between the electric machine, inverter and the transmission in an EV traction application. The electric machine and inverter interaction is analyzed considering the performance and losses in the electric machine when the inverter behavior is accurately modeled. To evaluate the electric machine and transmission interaction an analysis is presented that considers the NVH response of the system including the gearbox and housing at different operating conditions.
Replacing high speed grid operated universal motors with permanent magnet motors has been a challenge because of size, complexity, cost, power quality and reliability. Now there is an alternative that meets these challenges. The Resonant Field Exciter fed Wound field motor uses wireless power transfer to create and control the rotor field, completely independent of the stator power. This patented technology eliminates the magnets, inverter, and power factor correction circuits of the conventional approach as well as their associated costs, losses, power quality problems and size constraints. Join the Chief Technology Officer of Digital Motor Holdings, Gary Box, for an in-depth presentation and discussion of the high speed Resonant Field Exciter fed Wound field motor.
Industry continues to evolve in support of a safer work environment with regard to arc flash events. With respect to the OSHA/ANSI hierarchy of controls an arc-resistant designed medium voltage drive enhances personnel safety and improves equipment robustness. This presentation will focus on understanding why arc resistant designed equipment needs to be considered when evaluating the integrated system level failure mode risks of internal arcing faults. A summary checklist of requirements is included for reference when specifying an arc resistant medium voltage adjustable frequency drive.
Variable Frequency Drives, as a non-linear load, draw non-sinusoidal current with high harmonic content. In order to prevent harmonics from negatively affecting the power bus and to comply with industrial standards, Motor Drives need to restrict the generation of harmonics. The presentation addresses a new innovative solution for harmonic mitigation. This new method, covered by recently issued US patent, limits total harmonic content to less than 5%. The solution is simpler, having a lower part count, as compared with other existing harmonic mitigation approaches. Overview of this new solution and its comparison with other compatible harmonic reduction methods are discussed in the presentation.
Interfacing MCUs to position encoders often warrant use of an additional FPGA or custom ASIC in the system due to various types protocols used by several encoder manufacturers and continuously evolving nature of these interface protocols. A configurable system-on-chip solution, integrated in MCUs, would greatly simplify interfacing to both analog and digital position sensors. This paper will analyze the demands of supporting this on-chip such as protocol unwrap, reduce communication latency and enable faster control loop performance. This approach also decreases system cost by reducing area required for FPGA or custom ASIC-based solutions available today, making the system ideal for the development of industrial and servo drives applications.
Commercial applications for battery powered autonomous vehicles used in air, land and sea environments will grow exponentially in the next few years. The drone application is the most popular of these applications in the present time. Currently most of the present applications use a special low weight design of the radial flux permanent magnet outer rotation motor. These applications need the low weight to allow a higher payload and a very low resistance to allow longer flight times. The Axial Flux motor can also be made in this type of design of a motor with a short height and a large OD and ID to minimize weight and resistance. This case study will compare the low weight Axial Flux design with both the inner rotation and outer rotation radial flux motor. The motor case study will be for a 3.5-inch diameter and 1.25 inch length motor. The input and output conditions will be the same and the weight and resistance of the three magnetic circuits will be compared. This case study will also compare the cost and reliability of the three motor types.
One of the major potential challenges for simulating motor designs is the impact of stator lamination materials on motor performance. There are a number of variables in selecting magnetic materials for use in a brushless PM motor design. A first quadrant magnetizing curve and a core loss curve are needed from the steel foundry. The second curve involves core loss versus iron member weight at different excitation frequencies. Both curves must be loaded individually into the SPEED based material files. Stator and Rotor lamination thicknesses, unit flux density, and specific magnetic material also impacts motor saturation and core losses just beyond the knee of the 1st quadrant B/H curve. My new Motor-CAD BPM-EMag module simulation program will be used to illustrate the performance impact of these various materials on overall motor performance.
This presentation will discuss how the inverter to motor cable can affect system performance. We will look at various cable constructions and how different cable components affect system performance. We will look at how this cable can help you realize performance benefits can be achieved when using this cable. We will discuss issues that crop up in VFD systems including problems with PLCs, motors, drive trips, energy inefficiencies, and more. We will consider different termination methods of this cable and why it’s important for optimal performance. We will look at various VFD Cable constructions and why some are better than others. We will show why the high frequency information in the inverter output can cause system problems.
The MBD approach is practical as it evaluates the whole drive performance. Simple analytic models are often used to represent the subsystems at the cost of the accuracy to reduce the computation time. These models are sufficient for steady-state analysis but inadequate for transient analysis. Analytical modelling of high-performance nonlinear machines is difficult due to saturation, a variation of inductances and optimized complex rotor geometries. The solution has been to co-simulate with FEA at the cost of the solving time. The presentation will cover the advantages, the generation, the performance and the application of an FEA derived behaviour model for an electric vehicle motor. The models are fast system level models with an accuracy of FEA at a lower cost. They are shareable between firms as they conceal the electric machine designs and material properties.
Motors require direct feedback. Resolvers or encoders have been either bolt-on parts or key accessories for electric motors for many years. The requirements for feedback has been changing and new drive technology requires different kind of input. With the rise of new control systems, analog, digital, incremental or absolute position information has been discussed heavily in the design of motion systems. New advances in magnetic measurement enable designers to add new possibilities to their future products. The ability to integrate magnetic encoders extremely manifold allow many new control concepts. Higher accuracy, more design flexibility and support for advanced concepts can provide a better motion in the system. Based on sample concepts, this talk will focus on the added value of magnetic encoders for the electrical motor of all kinds.
High accuracy, high resolution off axis absolute position magnetic modular and kit type encoders can now be produced in packages formally reserved for incremental designs. Industry has steadily moved from incremental optical encoders to incremental magnetic encoders as performance and value of magnetic encoders has advanced. Specifically, new advancements in magnetization techniques and high performance microcontrollers now allow upgrading incremental designs to absolute designs. This presentations describes how a small 1.5 inch diameter incremental magnetic modular encoder has been upgraded to a 14 bit (16,384 position) power-on absolute encoder. It can easily be customized for high volume applications. The design offers low latency serial absolute position output, quadrature output and extremely accurate U, V , W commutation outputs.